The overall theme of my research program is to understand mechanisms of arrhythmias in general. My laboratory has developed techniques (optical mapping) to study cellular and tissue electrophysiology. We are able study cellular electrophysiology of embryoid bodies. We study electrical integration of stem cells and to utilize engineered cells to alter electrophysiologic substrate. We have developed techniques to study the electrical integration and developed ways to modulate electrophysiology of the organ with cell transplantation.